Nutritional Diseases

For each of the following patients, select the most likely nutritional problem:

1. A baby is born near term to a 19-year-old primigravida whose prenatal course was unremarkable until an ultrasound performed at 16 weeks revealed a lumbar meningomyelocele. The maternal serum alpha fetoprotein was markedly increased. What supplement reduces the incidence of this problem:

2. A 45-year-old man has a history of chronic alcoholism. He is involved in a motor vehicle accident and dies from his injuries. In addition to multiple cerebral contusions, autopsy also reveals evidence for Wernicke's disease:

3. After many months away from home at university consuming a diet including their own version of the four basic food groups (beer, pizza, chocolate, and chips), a group of college students develops anemia, bone pain, bleeding from the gums, and purpura with only minor trauma:

4. A 45-year-old woman lives alone. She has developed a skin rash in sun-exposed areas, a chronic diarrhea, and decreased mentation over the past year:

5. A newborn is observed to have continued bleeding from the umbilical cord stump:

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A. Folic acid deficiency B. Vitamin A deficiency C. Vitamin A toxicity D. Vitamin B1 deficiency
E. Vitamin B2 deficiency F. Vitamin B3 deficiency G. Vitamin B6 deficiency H. Vitamin B12 deficiency
I. Vitamin C deficiency J. Vitamin D deficiency K. Vitamin D excess L. Vitamin K deficiency
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