Very similar to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). The two conditions may be difficult to tell apart. HUS can be a leading cause for acute renal failure in children. Ingestion of foods, such as poorly cooked ground beef, introduces a verotoxin-producing E. coli infection into the GI tract. Such strains are often identified by serotyping, typically type O157:H7. A bloody diarrhea is followed in a few days by renal failure caused by endothelial injury from the toxin, leading to the characteristic fibrin thrombi in glomerular and interstitial capillaries. Most patients recover in a few weeks with supportive dialysis.

For you inquisitive folks, the 'O' refers to oligosaccharide units of the lipopolysaccharide in the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria like E. coli. The 'H' refers to flagellin subunits comprising the surface of flagella of E. coli.. These O and H units have specific antigenicity which can be identified by serologic techniques.