The cut surfaces of the kidney removed surgically here demonstrate normal cortex and medulla, but the calyces show focal papillary tumor masses of urothelial carcinoma.

Question: What are risk factors for urothelial carcinoma?

Answer Risks include cigarette smoking, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or aromatic amines (e.g., beta-naphthylamine), and family history with affected first degree relative.