A common cause for inflammation is a so-called "Barrett esophagus" with epithelial metaplasia to gastric-type mucosa above the gastroesophageal junction. The metaplasia results from chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Note the columnar epithelium to the left and the squamous epithelium at the right. This is "typical" Barrett mucosa, because there is intestinal metaplasia as well (note the goblet cells in the columnar mucosa).

Question: What are some clinical features of GERD?

AnswerGERD can cause dysphagia and regurgitation, as well as substernal chest pain. Half of patients develop esophagitis with odynophagia. Extraesophageal manifestations incude coughing and wheezing.