This irregular reddish, ulcerated exophytic mid-esophageal mass as seen on the mucosal surface is a squamous cell carcinoma. Endoscopic views of an ulcerated mid-esophageal squamous cell carcinoma causing lumenal stenosis are seen below. Risk factors for esophageal squamous carcinoma include mainly smoking and alcoholism in the U.S. In other parts of the world dietary factors may play a role.