Here is a high power microscopic view of an adenohypophyseal adenoma. Endocrine neoplasms are composed of small round cells with small round nuclei and pink to blue cytoplasm. The cells may be arranged in nests or cords and endocrine tumors also have prominent vascularity.

Pituitary adenomas may be treated by surgical removal or pharmacologically. The drug pasireotide is a somatostatin analogue that acts on somatostatin receptors in pituitary adenoma cells to inhibit their secretion of ACTH in patients with Cushing disease and growth hormone in patients with acromegaly. For prolactinomas, a dopaminergic drug such as bromocriptine can be used.

For suspected acromegaly, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is the best single biomarker.